Back
 
Name: Dr. Muhammad Zakaullah
Designation: Professor
Department: Physics


Qualifications: Ph.D.


Phone: +92-051 9064-2069
Email: mzakaullah@qau.edu.pk
Status: On Job
Other Weblink:

View Resume

Research Interests Publications Conferences Research Projects

A Mather type Plasma Focus (PF) device was developed (in the laboratory) that became operational during early 1988. During 1990’s the main emphasis of research was enhancing fusion neutron yield by varying different physical parameters of the machine. Depleted uranium assisted breakdown was proved the most efficient that made the neutron emission more than double.

Using the PF as an efficient x-ray source was the main topic of research during 1996-2005. X-ray generation efficiency as high as 4% was achieved, and the machine was successfully used for ultrafast (~50 nsec) radiography of different (including the live biological) samples.

On this system, the present work is: using the (10-200) keV charged particle becams emitted from PF for implantation on different materials samples and hence the surface modification.

Since 2001, the following additional facilities are added in the laboratory.

1-      Pulsed dc discharge

2-      Capacitively coupled and inductively coupled RF (13.56Mhz) discharge

3-      Raman Spectroscopy

4-      Microhardness tester

5-      Spectrographs for optical emission spectroscopy

6-      PC controlled Langmuir probe

The work on pulsed dc discharge resulted to development of a proto-type plasma Ionitriding reactor. In the machine, surface of different types of steels is hardened 2-3 times, within 3-4 hours. The work is underway for its use in the industry.

The RF plasmas of different gases (mixture) are diagnosed using Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Langmuir probe. For applications, different experiments on plasma sterilization of the specimens and nanotubes/ nanomaterials’ treatment are underway.

List of some selected publications of Dr. M. Zakaullah

1.       Rehman N. U., Khan F.U., Naseer S., Murtaza G., Hussain S.S., Ahmad I. and Zakaullah M., Trace-Rare-Gas Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Nitrogen Plasma Generated at a Frequency of 13.56MHz., Plasma science and Technology, 13 (2011) 2.

 

2.         Khan F. U., Rehman N. U., Naseer S., Naz M. Y., Khattak N. A. D., and Zakaullah M., Effect of excitation and vibrational temperature  on the dissociation of nitrogen molecules in Ar-N2 mixture RF discharge, Spectroscopy Letters, 44 (2011) 194-202.

 

3.       Murtaza G., Hussain S. S., Rehman N. U., Naseer S., Shafiq M. and Zakaullah M., Carburizing of zirconium using a low energy Mather type plasma focus, Surface & Coating Technology 205 (2011) 3012 – 3019.


4.        Mahmood S., Rawat R. S., Darby M. S. B., Zakaullah M., Springham S. V., Tan T. L. and Lee P., On the plume splitting of pulsed laser ablated Fe and Al plasmas, Physics of Plasmas 17 (2010) 103105


5.     Hussain S., Shafiq M., Badar M. A. and Zakaullah M., Effect of insulator sleeve material on the x-ray emission from a plasma focus device, Physics of Plasmas 17 (2010) 092705


6.      Khan H. U.,  Shafiq M. Hussain S. S. and Zakaullah M., Effect of preionization on soft X-ray emission and plasma dynamics in a small plasma focus system, J. Appl. Phys. 107 (2010) 073301


7.       Khan I. A., Jabbar S., Hussain T., Hussan M., Ahmad A., Zakaullah M., Rawat S. S., Deposition of zirconium carbonitride composite films using ion and electron beams emitted from plasma focus device, Nucl. Instr. Meth. In Phys. Res. B 268 (2010) 2228 – 2234.


8.       Hussain S., Shafiq M. and Zakaullah M., Tailoring a plasma focus as hard x-ray source for imaging, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 (2010) 031501.


9.     Naseer S., Khan F.U., Rehman N.U., Qayyum A., Rahman F. and Zakaullah M., Plasma nitriding of aluminium in a pulsed dc glow discharge of nitrogen, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 49 (2010) 21001.


10.     Khan H. U., Shafiq M., Hussain S. S. and Zakaullah M., Enhancing soft X-ray emission with depleted uranium in neon plasma focus, EPJ Appl. Phys. 48 (2009) 21001.


11.     Khan F. U., Rehman N. U., Naseer S., Naveed M. A., Qayyum A., Khattak N. A. D. and Zakaullah M., Reply to comments on: Diagnostics of 13.56 MHz RF sustained Ar-N2 plasma by optical emission spectroscopy, EPJ Appl. Phys. 47 (2009) 11002.


12.      Murtaza G., Hussain S. S., Sadiq M. and  Zakaullah M., Plasma focus assisted carburizing of aluminium, Thin Solid Films 517 (2009) 6777-6783.


13.     Hussain S. S., Ahmad S., Murtaza G., and  Zakaullah M., Effect of anode shape on correlation of neutron emission with pinch energy from a 2.7 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device, , J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009) 023311, 1-5.


14.      Khan I. A., Hassan M., Hussain T., Ahmad R., ., Zakaullah M., Rawat R. S., Synthesis of nano-crystalline zirconium aluminium oxynitride (ZrAlON) composite films by dense plasma focus device, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 (2009) 6132 – 6140.


15.      Hassan M., Qayyum A., Ahmad R., Rawat R. S., Lee P., Hassan S. M., Murtaza G. and Zakaullah M., Dense plasma focus ion-based titanium nitride coating on titanium, Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. 267B (2009) 1911 – 1917.


16.    Jabbar S., Khan I. A., Ahmad R., Zakaullah M. and Pan J. S., Carbontriding of silicon using plasma focus device J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27 (2009) 381 - 388.


17.     Rehman N. U., Khan F. U., Khattak N. A. D., Naveed M. A. and Zakaullah M., Reply to comments on Determination of excitation temperature and vibrational temperature of the N2(C3Puu) state in the Ne-N2 RF discharge Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 18 (2009) 018002 (3 pp)


18.        Mahmood S., Rawat R. S., Zakaullah M., Lin J. J., Springham S. V., Tan T. L. and Lee P., Investigation of plume expansion dynamics and estimation of ablation parameters of laser ablated Fe plasma, J. Phys. D; Appl. Phys. 42 (2009) 135504 (10 pp)


19.      Hussain S., Ahmad S., Sadiq Mehboob, Lee P., Zakaullah M., and Waheed A., X-ray emission from plasma focus: envisioned by various competitive detectors, J. Fusion Energy 28 (2009) 124 - 129.


20.     Khan F. U., Rehman N. U., Naseer S., Naveed M. A., Qayyum A., Khattak N. A. D. and Zakaullah M., Diagnostics of 13.56 MHz RF sustained Ar-N2 plasma by optical emission spectroscopy EPJ Appl. Phys. 45 (2009) 11002, 1-8.


21.     Rehman N. U., Khattak F. U., Khattak N. A. D. and Zakaullah M., Erratum to: Effect of neon mixing on vibrational temperature of molecular nitrogen plasma generated at 13.56 MHz, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 7100.


22.   Rehman N. U., Khan F. U., Naseer S. and Zakaullah M., Characterization of non-thermal Ne-N2 mixture radio frequency discharge, J. Appl. Phys. 104 (2008) 123304, 1-9.


23.      Naveed M. A., Rehman N. U., Zeb S., Hussain S., and Zakaullah M., Langmuir probe and spectroscopic studies of RF generated helium-nitrogen mixture plasma, Eur Phys. J. D. 47 (2008) 395 - 402


24.     Khan I. A., Hassan M., Ahmad R., Qayyum A., Murtaza G., Zakaullah M., and Rawat R. S., Nitridation of zirconium using energetic ions from plasma focus device, Thin Solid Films 516 (2008) 8255 - 8263.


25.   Khattak N. A. D., Ahmad Z., Zakaullah M., and Murtaza G., Compression enhancement by current stepping in a multicascade liner gas-puff Z-pinch plasma, Physica Scripta 77 (2008) 045501 (8pp).


26.    Zeb S., Qayyum A., Shafiq M. and Zakaullah M., Deposition of titanium nitride on AISI-304 in plasma focus environment, EPJ Appl. Phys. 42 (2008) 145 - 151.


27.   Rehman N. U., Khan F. U., Naveed M. A. and Zakaullah M., Determination of excitation temperature and vibrational temperature of the N2(C3Puu) state in the Ne-N2 RF discharge Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 17 (2008) 025005 (8 pp).


28.     Shah M. S., Murtaza S., Ahmad R., Zakaullah M., Qayyum A. and Murtaza G., Langmuir Probe characterization of nitrogen plasma for surface nitriding of AISI-4140 steel, J. Material Processing Tech. 199 (2008) 363 – 368.


29.              Rehman N. U., Khattak F. U., Khattak N. A. D. and Zakaullah M., Effect of neon mixing on vibrational temperature of molecular nitrogen plasma generated at 13.56 MHz, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 1462 - 1468.


30.      Hassan M., Rawat R. S., Lee P., Hassan S. M., Qayyum. A., Ahmad R., Murtaza G. and Zakaullah M., Synthesis of nanocrysalline muliphase titanium carbide (TiCxOy) thin films by UNU/ICTP and NX2 plasma focus devices Appl. Phys. A 90 (2008) 669 – 677.

 

31.     Masood K., Iqbal M. and Zakaullah M., Emission characteristics of the thermionic electron beam sources developed at EBSDL, Nucl. Instrum. & Meth. Phys. Res. A 584 (2008) 9 – 24.

 

32.      Qayyum A., Shaista Zeb, Naveed M. A., Rehman N. U., Ghauri S. A., and Zakaullah M. Optical emission spectroscopy of Ar-N2 mixture plasma, J Q Spectroscopy Rad. Tranfer 107 (2007) 361 - 371.


33.      Hussain S. S., Ahmad S., Lee S. and Zakaullah M., The correlation of X-ray emission with pinch energy in a 1.5 kJ plasma focus, Plasma Sources Sci. Tech. 16 (2007) 587 – 592.


34.     Shaista Zeb, Sadiq M., Qayyum A., Murtaza Ghulam and Zakaullah M., Deposition of diamond-like carbon film using dense plasma focus, Mat. Chem. Phys. 103 (2007) 235 - 240.


35.   Sadiq M., Ahmad A., Shafiq M. and Zakaullah M., Enhanced crystallinity of PTFE by ion irradiation in dense plasma focus, Plasma Process & Polymers 4 (2007) 186 - 191.


36.       Shaista Zeb, Murtaza G., and Zakaullah M. Influence of the filling gas on plasma focus assisted diamond-like carbon coating at room temperature, J. Appl. Phys. 101 (2007) 063307: 1-9.


37.   Shaista Zeb, Qayyum A., Sadiq M., Shafiq M., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Deposition of diamond-like carbon films using graphite sputtering in neon dense plasma, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 27 (2007) 127 139.


38.     Haasan M., Qayyum A., Ahmad R., Murtaza G. and Zakaullah M., Nitriding of titanium by using ion beam delivered by a plasma focus, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 40 (2007)769-777.


39.   Sadiq M., Ahmad A., Shafiq M. and Zakaullah M., Nitrogen ion implantation of silicon in dense plasma focus, Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 252 (2006) 219 -224.


40.     Sadiq M., Ahmad A., Shafiq M. and Zakaullah M. Ahmad R. and Waheed A., Reactive sputter deposition of AlN films by dense plasma focus, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 24 (2006) 2122 -2127 .


41.     Sharif M., Ahmad S., Hussain S., Zakaullah M., and Waheed A., X-ray emission scaling law from a plasma focus with different inserts (Cu, Mo and W) at the anode tip, J. Appl. Phys. 100 (2006) 073301.


42.     Naveed M. A., Qayyum A., Ali S. and Zakaullah M., Effects of helium gas mixing on the production of active species in nitrogen plasma, Phys. Lett. A 359 (2006) 499 - 503.


43.    Hassan M., Ahmad R., Murtaza G., Qayyum A., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Surface modification of AlFe1.8Zn0.8 alloy by using dense plasma focus, Vacuum 81 (2006) 291 - 298.


44.     Ahmad S., Shafiq M., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Depleted uranium (92U238) induced pre-ionization for enhanced and reproducible X-ray emission from plasma focus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2006) 061503.


45.   Ahmad S., Hussain S. S., Sadiq M., Shafiq M., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Enhanced and reproducible neutron emission from a plasma focus with pre-ionization induced by depleted uranium (U238), Plasma Phys. Cont. Fusion 48 (2006) 745 - 755.


46.      Ahmad S., Sadiq M., Shafiq M., Waheed A., Lee P. and Zakaullah M., Effect of Pre-Ionization by Shunt Resistor on Reproducibility of the Plasma Focus Operation, Plasma Sources Science & Technology, 15 (2006) 314 - 321.


47.     Sadiq M., Ahmad S., Wheed A and Zakaullah M., The Nitriding of Aluminium by Dense Plasma Focus, Plasma Sources Science & Technology, 15 (2006) 295-301.


48.       Sharif M., Hussain S., Zakaullah M. and Waheed A, Enhancement of X-ray emission in the side on direction in a Mather-type plasma focus Euro Phys. J. D 38 (2006) 337 - 341.


49.         Qayyum A., Ahmad R, Ghauri S A, Waheed A and Zakaullah M., Hydrogen Balmer-β and Balmer-γ emission profiles in an abnormal glow region of hydrogen plasma, Vacuum 80 (2006) 574-580.


50.   Sadiq M., Shafiq M., Waheed A., Ahmad R. and Zakaullah M. Amorphization of silicon by ion irradiation in dense plasma focus Phys. Lett. A 352 (2006) 150-154.


51.    Qayyum A., Zeb S., Naveed M. A., Ghauri S. A., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Optical emission spectroscopy of the active species in nitrogen plasma, Plasma Devices and Operations 14 (2006) 61-70.


52.     Ahmad S., Sadiq M., Hussain S., Shafiq M., Zakaullah M. and Waheed A., Catalytic action of β-source on X-ray emission from plasma focus Rev. Sci. Inst. 77 (2006) 013504


53.      Hussain S., Ahmad S., Sharif M., Sadiq M., Waheed A and Zakaullah M., Comparative studies of X-ray emission from a plasma focus with different metal inserts at the anode tip, Phys. Lett. A 349 (2006) 236-244.


54.     Ahmad S., Sadiq M., Hussain S., Shafiq M., Lee P., Zakaullah M. and Waheed A., Enhanced and reproducible X-ray emission in a low energy plasma focus, Europhys. Lett. 73 (2006) 42-48.


55.    Qayyum A., Zeb S., Naveed M. A., Ghauri S. A., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Diagnostic of nitrogen plasma by trace rare gas-optical emission spectroscopy, J. Appl. Phys. 98 (2005) 103303;1-9.


56.      Qayyum A., Ahmad R., Waheed A and Zakaullah M., Spectroscopic optimisation of abnormal glow conditions for plasma ion nitriding, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 32 (2005) 45-52.


57.     Qayyum A., Zeb S., Ali S., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Optical emission spectroscopy of abnormal glow region in nitrogen plasma, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 25 (2005) 551-564


58.    Patran A.,Tan L. C., Stoenescu D., Rafique M. S., Rawat R. S., Springham S. V., Tan T. L., Lee P., Zakaullah M., and Lee S., Spectral study of the electron beam emitted from a 3 kJ plasma focus, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14 (2005) 549-560


59.    Rawat R. S., Zhang T., Lim G. J., Tan W. H., Ng S. J., Patran A., Hassan S. M., Springham S. V., Tan T. L., Zakaullah M., Lee P., and Lee S., Soft X-ray Imaging using a Neon Filled Plasma Focus X-ray Source, Journal of Fusion Energy 23, (2004, ©2005) 49-53.


60.      Zakaullah M. Ahmad S., Hussain S., Afzal A. and Waheed A, X-rays emission from a compact diode energised by a capacitor discharge, European Physical Journal-Applied Physics 29 (2005) 91-97.


61.    Hussain S, Shafiq M., Ahmad R., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Plasma focus as a possible X-ray source for radiography, Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 14 (2005) 61-69.


62.     Yasin M., Ali R., Solaija T J., Younus J. and Zakaullah M., Study of neutron yield degradation in a low energy plasma focus, J Fusion Energy 22, (2003, ©2004) 245 – 248.


63.    Sharif M., Hussain S., Zakaullah M. and Waheed A, Study of the x-ray emission scaling law in a low energy plasma focus, Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 13 (2004) B7 – B13.


64.      Hussain S., Ahmad S., Khan M. Z., Zakaullah M. and Waheed A., Plasma focus as a high intensity flash X-ray source for biological radiography, J Fusion Energy 22, (2003, ©2004) 195 – 200.


65.       Hussain S., Zakaullah M., Ali S. and Waheed A., Low energy plasma focus as an intense X-ray source for radiography, Plasma Science & Technology 6 (2004) 2296-2300.


66.      Ahmad R., Hassan M., Murtaza G., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., Study of lateral spread of ions emitted from 2.3 kJ plasma focus with hydrogen and nitrogen gases, J Fusion Energy 21, (2002, ©2003) 217 – 220.


67.      Hussain S., Zakaullah M., Ali S., Bhatti S. H. and Waheed A., X-ray enhancement from a plasma focus by inserting lead at the anode tip, Phys. Lett. 319A (2003) 181 - 187.


68.      Khan M. Z., Ahmad S., Zakaullah M., Waheed A., Ahmad R. and G. Murtaza, Study of X-ray emission from a compact diode operated by a high inductance capacitor discharge, J Fusion Energy 21, (2002, ©2003) 211 – 216.


69.     Zakaullah M., Improved plasma electron temperature measurement and its correlation study with neutron emission in a low energy plasma focus, in Advances in Plasma Physics Research, vol. 4, ed. By Francois Gerard, Nova Science Publishers Inc. New York (2003) pp. 175-187.


70.      Zakaullah M. , Waheed A., Ahmad S., Zeb S., and Hussain S., Study of neutron emission in a low energy plasma focus with b-source assisted breakdown, Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 12 (2003) 443-448.


71.       Shafiq M., Hussain S., Waheed A. and Zakaullah M., X-ray emission from plasma focus with high Z inserts at the anode tip, Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 12 (2003) 199 - 204.


72.     Zakaullah M., Alamgir A., Shafiq M., Sharif M. and Waheed A., Scope of plasma focus with argon as a soft X-ray source, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 30 (2002) 2089 - 2094.


73.     Shafiq M., Hussain S, Sharif M. and Zakaullah M., Soft x-ray emission optimization study with nitrogen gas in a 1.2 kJ plasma focus, J Fusion Energy 20, (2001, ©2002) 113 – 115.


74.     Shafiq M., Hussain S., Sharif M., Zakaullah M., and Waheed A., Study of molybdenum K-series line radiation emission from a low energy plasma focus, Phys. Lett. 302A (2002) 23-27.


75.       Shafiq M., Sharif M., Sartaj, Zakaullah M., Waheed A. and Murtaza G., A simple technique to record X-ray fluence anisotropy of a source, J Fusion Energy 20, (2001, ©2002) 69-73.


76.     Zakaullah M., Alamgir K., Shafiq M., Hassan S. M., Sharif M. Hussain S. and Waheed A., Characteristics of X-rays from plasma focus operated with neon gas, Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 11 (2002) 377-382.


77.    Zakaullah M., Alamgir K., Shafiq M., Sharif M., Waheed A. and Murtaza G., Low energy plasma focus as a tailored X-ray source, J Fusion Energy 19, (2000, ©2002) 143-157.


78.    Waheed A., Aqil-ur-Rehman, Zakaullah M. and Murtaza G., High efficiency neutron detector for low neutron flux measurement, J Fusion Energy 19 (2000, ©2001) 91-92.


79.      Zakaullah M., Alamgir A., Shafiq M., Hasan S. M., Murtaza G. and Waheed A., Improved temperature measurement in a plasma focus by means of a cobalt filter, Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 10 (2001) 295-301.


80.      Zakaullah M., Khalid Alamgir, Ather Rasool, Shafiq M., Murtaza G. and Waheed A., Correlation of plasma electron temperature with neutron emission in a low energy plasma focus, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 29 (2001) 62-68.


81.     Zakaullah M., Alamgir A., Shafiq M., Hassan S. M., Sharif M. and Waheed A., Enhanced copper K-alpha radiation from a low energy plasma focus, Applied Physics Letters 78 (2001) 877-879.

 

82.      Lebedev S.V., Beg F. N., Bland S. N., Chittenden J. B., Dangor A. E., Haines M. G., Zakaullah M., Pikuz S. A., Shelkovenko T. A., and Hammer D. A., X-ray backlighting of wire array Z-pinch implosions using X-pinch, Rev. Scientific Instruments, 72 (2001) 671-673.


83.    Zakaullah M., K Alamgir, G. Murtaza and A. Waheed, Efficiency of plasma focus for argon K-series line radiation emission, Plasma Sources Science & Tech. 9 (2000) 592-596.


84.  Zakaullah M., and Worley J., X-ray Emission from 30J Blumlein operated compact diode, J of App. Phys. 88 (2000) 1251-1256.

85.    Lebedev S. V., Aliaga-Rossel R., Bland S. N., Chittenden J. P.. Dangor A. E., Haines M. G. and Zakaullah M. Two Different Modes of Nested Wire Array Z-Pinch Implosions, Physical Review Letters, 84 (2000) 1708-1711.

86.    Zakaullah M., Ijaz Akhtar, G. Murtaza and Waheed A, Imaging of Fusion Reaction Zone in Plasma Focus, Physics of Plasmas, 6 (1999) 3188 – 3192.


87.      Zakaullah M., Ijaz Akhtar, Waheed A., Khalid Alamgir, Shah Anwar Z. and Murtaza G., Comparative study of ion, x-ray and neutron emission in a low energy plasma focus, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 7 (1998) 206-218.


88.       Zakaullah M., Imtiaz Ahmad, Shafique M., Murtaza G., Yasin M. and Beg M.M., Correlation Study of Ions, Electrons and X-Rays emission from Argon Focus Plasma, Physica Scripta, 57 (1998) 136 - 141.


89.      Zakaullah M., Imtiaz Ahmad, Shafique M., Salma Khanam, Omar A.R., Mathuthu M., Murtaza G. and Beg M. M., Plasma Focus Characteristics using Stainless Steel Anode, Physica Scripta, 56 (1997) 649 - 654.


90.      Zakaullah M., Imtiaz Ahmad, Murtaza G. and Beg M.M., Influence of Magnetic Probe Presence on Current Sheath Dynamics in Plasma Focus operation, Fusion Engg & Design 36 (1997) 437 – 446.

 

91.     Zakaullah M., Imtiaz Ahmad, Omar A., Murtaza G. and Beg M.M., Effects of Anode Shape on Plasma Focus operation with Argon, Plasma Sources Science and Technology. 5 (1996) 544 - 552.

 

92.   Zakaullah M., Murtaza G., Shahid Qamar, Imtiaz Ahmad and Beg M.M., Neutron and X-ray Emission Studies in a Small Plasma Focus, Physica Scripta, 53 (1996) 360 - 363.

 

93.       Zakaullah M., Murtaza G., Imtiaz Ahmad, Beg Farhat N., Beg M.M. and Shabbir M. Comparative Study of Low Energy Mather-Type Plasma Focus Devices, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 4 (1995) 117 - 124.


94.      Beg M.M., Shabbir M., Zakaullah M. and Murtaza G., Pressure Range Broadening for a Plasma Focus Operation, Phys. Lett. A186 (1994) 335 - 338.

 

95.      Zakaullah M., Imtiaz Ahmed, Murtaza G., Yasin M. and Beg M.M., Effect of Insulator Sleeve Contamination on the Low Energy Plasma Focus Performance, Fusion Engineering and Design, 23 (1993) 359 - 365.


96.     Nisar M., Khattak F.Y., Murtaza G., Zakaullah M. and Rashid N., Sequential Focusing in a Mather-Type Plasma Focus, Physica Scripta, 47 (1993) 814 - 816.


97.           Zakaullah M., Imtiaz Ahmad, Nasir Rashid, Beg M. M., and Murtaza G., Influence of Insulator Contamination by Copper Evaporation on Neutron Yield in a low Energy Plasma Focus, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 35 (1993) 689 - 692.


98.     Beg F.N., Zakaullah M., Murtaza G. and Beg M.M., Effect of Insulator Sleeve Material on Neutron Emission from a Plasma Focus, Physica Scripta, 46 (1992) 152 - 154.


99.     Zakaullah M., Baig T.J., Beg S. and Murtaza. G., Effect of Insulator Sleeve Length on Neutron Emission in a Plasma Focus, Phys. Lett. A137 (1989) 39 - 43.


100.  Lee S., Tou T.Y., Eissa M., Gholap A.V., Kwek K.H., Moo S. P.,Mulyodrono S., Smith A.J., Suryadi, Usada W., Wong C.S. and Zakaullah M., A Simple Facility for the Teaching of Plasma Dynamics and Plasma Nuclear Fusion, Am. J. Phys. 56 (1988) 62 - 68.

 



Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.
Tel: +92-051 9064 0000, Email:webmaster@qau.edu.pk
s